Avocado Lace Bug

Pseudacysta perseae (Hiedemann) (Heteroptera: Tingidae)

Description

The avocado lace bug, Pseudacysta perseae, was considered a minor pest of avocadoes until severe outbreaks were observed during the 90s. The adults are oblong shaped, brownish with numerous small "lace like cells" in the thorax and wings; they are observed on the leaf underside, where they feed, extracting juices from the plant. They usually live in colonies, depositing eggs in irregular rows in clusters on the lower leaf surface. The eggs are covered with a dark, sticky secretion from the adults. Upon emergence the first instar nymphs start to feed by sucking the juices of leaf cells in the vicinity of the oviposition site. The avocado lace bug goes through 4 nymphal stages, that show difference in the shape.

Damage

Part of plant damaged: Leaves

Avocado lace bug feeds extracting juices from the leaves and cause a gradual localized destruction of the plant cells. The resulting chlorotic areas will become brown and necrotic, and they are an indication of the presence of the lace bugs. Injuries from lace bug activities provided the infection court for the anthracnose fungus, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, the cause of the large necrotic blotches on the leaves, that first catches ones attention when surveying avocado and other hosts.

Life cycle

The life cycle of the avocado lace bug was reported by Abud Antum (1991) to be 22 days from egg to adult stage. Lace bugs begin a steady build-up in January and March.

Management
Action Levels

Presence of the avocado lace bug and damage of more than 30% to the foliage would merit application of pesticides. The pesticides, M-pede (soap) provided control of the avocado lace bug.

Biological Control

The most important natural enemies of the lace bug are two egg parasitoids, the green lacewing, and a predacious mirid.

Peña, J. E., Duncan, R. E., Roltsch, W. J., Carrillo, D. 2012. Mortality factors of the avocado lace bug, Pseudacysta perseae (Heteroptera: Tingidae), in Florida. Florida Entomol. 95(1): 179-182.

Henry, T. J., Peña, J. E., Long, D., Acevedo, F. 2009. Stethoconus praefectus (Hemiptera: Miridae): First North American record of an old world plant bug predacious on avocado lace bug, Pseudacysta perseae (Hemiptera: Tingidae), in Florida. Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 111(1): 98-105.

Holguin, C. M., Peña, J. E., Henry, T. J., Acevedo, F. 2009. Biology of Stethoconus praefectus (Distant) (Heteroptera: Miridae), a newly established predator of the avocado lace bug, Pseudacysta perseae (Heteroptera: Tingidae), in Florida. Florida Entomol. 92(1): 54-57.

Peña, J. E., Triapitsyn, S. V., Long, D., Evans, G. A., Roltsch, W. 2009. First record of Erythmelus klopomor (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae) as a parasitoid of the avocado lace bug Pseudacysta perseae (Heteroptera: Tingidae). Florida Entomol. 92(2): 394-395.

Gagné, R. J., Peña, J. E., Acevedo, F. E. 2008. A new Lestodiplosine (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) preying on the avocado lace bug, Pseudacysta perseae (Heteroptera: Tingidae) in southern Florida. Florida Entomol. 91(1): 43-48.

Peña, J. E., Duncan, R., Roltsch, W., Gagné, R., Agudelo, F. 2007. Natural enemies of the avocado lace bug, Pseudacysta perseae (Heteroptera: Tingidae) in Florida, USA. Proceedings VI World Avocado Congress. Viña Del Mar, Chile. 12-16 Nov.

Peña, J. E., Sundhari, S., Hunsberger, A., Duncan, R., Schaffer, B. 1998. Monitoring, damage, natural enemies and control of avocado lace bug, Pseudacysta perseae (Hemiptera: Tingidae). Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 111: 330-334.

Chemical Control

Updated list of insecticides labeled for Florida avocado production


Damage caused by the avocado lace bug (Pseudacysta perseae)
Damage caused by the avocado lace bug
Chrysoperla rufilabris, a predator of avocado lace bug (Pseudacysta perseae)
Chrysoperla rufilabris, a predator of avocado lace bug
Avocado tree with 40 to 60% damage by avocado lace bug (Pseudacysta perseae)
Avocado tree with 40 to 60% damage by avocado lace bug
Erythmelus egg parasitoid of avocado lace bug (Pseudacysta perseae)
Erythmelus egg parasitoid of avocado lace bug
Trichogrammatid egg parasitoid of avocado lace bug (Pseudacysta perseae)
Trichogrammatid egg parasitoid of avocado lace bug
Adult parasitoids emerging from avocado lace bug (Pseudacysta perseae) eggs
Adult parasitoids emerging from avocado lace bug eggs
Paracarniella cubanus, a natural enemy of Avocado Lace Bug (Pseudacysta perseae)
Paracarniella cubanus, a natural enemy of avocado lace bug
New predator of Avocado Lace Bug (Pseudacysta perseae)
New predator of avocado lace bug
Chrysoperla rufilabris, a predator of avocado lace bug (Pseudacysta perseae)
Chrysoperla rufilabris, a predator of avocado lace bug
Adult of the avocado lace bug (Pseudacysta perseae)
Adult of the avocado lace bug
Adult of the avocado lacebug (Pseudacysta perseae)
Adult of the avocado lace bug
Eggs of avocado lace bug (Pseudacysta perseae)
Eggs of avocado lace bug
Eggs and first instar nymphs of avocado lace bug (Pseudacysta perseae)
Eggs and first instars of avocado lace bug
Nymphs of avocado lace bug (Pseudacysta perseae)
Nymphs of avocado lace bug
Fourth (4th) instar nymph of avocado lace bug (Pseudacysta perseae)
Fourth instar nymph of avocado lace bug
Life cycle of avocado lace bug (Pseudacysta perseae)
Life cycle of avocado lace bug
Population dynamics and corresponding damage of avocado lace bug (Pseudacysta perseae)
Population dynamics and corresponding damage avocado lace bug
Avocado lace bug (Pseudacysta perseae) population when bagged vs. exposed
Avocado lace bug population changes when bagged vs. exposed
A new Cecidomyiidae, a natural enemy of avocado lace bug (Pseudacysta perseae)
A new Cecidomyiidae, a natural enemy of avocado lace bug
A new Cecidomyiidae, a natural enemy of avocado lace bug (Pseudacysta perseae)
A new Cecidomyiidae larvae, a natural enemy of avocado lace bug
Stethoconus praefectus, a predator of avocado lace bug (Pseudacysta perseae)
Stethoconus praefectus, a predator of avocado lace bug
Stethoconus praefectus immatures, a predator of avocado lace bug (Pseudacysta perseae)
Stethoconus praefectus immatures, predators of avocado lace bug